FDR’s Commitment to the Hudson Valley

by Paul M. Sparrow, director FDR Presidential Library and Museum

On July 1st, the Trustees of the FDR Library and Museum will present the first Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Hudson Valley Vision Award to Dutchess County Executive Marcus Molinaro for his work championing the ThinkDIFFERENTLY Campaign. The award seeks to recognize those working to improve the future of the Hudson Valley for ALL residents, through engagement and inclusion.  This recognition is in keeping with the lifelong commitment that both President and Mrs. Roosevelt had to supporting and promoting Dutchess County and the Hudson Valley.

“All that is within me cries out to go back to my home on the Hudson River…”

FDR at his home Springwood in Hyde Park, 1931

 

President Franklin D. Roosevelt wrote those words on July 11, 1944 as he reluctantly agreed to run for a fourth term. Even as he put words to paper, perhaps he sensed he would not live long enough to fulfill the dream of retiring to his beloved Top Cottage. His deep commitment to Dutchess County and the Hudson Valley are the reasons why his Presidential Library and Museum is in Hyde Park and not Washington, D.C.

FDR at Top Cottage with Ruthie Bie and Fala, Feb. 1941

Franklin Roosevelt’s deep roots in the native soil of Hyde Park started growing when he was very young. His idyllic childhood included exploring his family’s estate searching for arrowheads, ice boating on the Hudson River, collecting birds and planting trees.

FDR ice boating on the Hudson River aboard the Hawk, 1905

His efforts as President to solve the Dust bowl environmental crisis of the 1930s were a direct result of his passion for trees and soil conservation.

On Saturday, December 10, 1938 FDR first announced his plans to donate all of his papers, art, ship models and books to the American people and to build a Presidential Library to house them. At the press conference that day he said:

“It is my hope that during my lifetime I will continue to live at Hyde Park, and if a period collection of this kind is permanently domiciled on what is my own place, I will be able to give assistance to the maintenance of the collection during my lifetime. … It is almost imperative that they should be placed in Hyde Park, and at the same time the ownership and title of all the papers, books, et cetera, should be in the federal government itself.”

This was an unprecedented act of generosity and patriotism – and he did it so that people could learn the lessons of the past to make a better world in the future.  He also noted that he had paintings, books, and historical records, “…relating to the Hudson Valley and the town of Hyde Park.”  His collection includes hundreds of books on the history of New York, many focused on Dutchess County.

FDR’s local history book collection is available for Museum visitors to view in visible storage.

FDR knew the Library and Museum would have a lasting impact on the region’s economy and he added a positive spin on the area’s tourism:

“I may mention that the place at Hyde Park is located on the New York – Albany Post Road – two hours from New York City by train or motor, and four and one-half miles from the City of Poughkeepsie, which has good hotel and other accommodations.”

The assembled press greeted that remark with laughter – perhaps the reporters had other views of the local accommodations – but FDR insisted “…don’t slam that last statement.”

It did not take long for FDR’s critics to voice their opinion. In a letter to the president dated December 13, 1938, Mr. Clarence Boothby wrote

“The decent citizens of this country are not all interested in perpetuating your memory to future generations, — in fact, we are only anxious to forget the stench of your egotistical, incompetent, unscrupulous and unspeakable costly administration as quickly as we can get you out of office.”

The President originally called it the “Hyde Park Library” but the Library Committee, made up of noted historians and scholars, felt that name was not distinctive enough.  The “Crum Elbow Library” was suggested, referring to the original tract of land on which library would be built.  FDR thought this idea was “swell.”  However, he was the only one who thought so and was again overruled by the Committee who selected the name as the “Franklin D. Roosevelt Library.” R.D.W Connor, then Archivist of the United Sates, noted that “the President of the United States found himself unanimously overruled by a ‘packed’ court of his own choosing.”

A bill was put before Congress for the Library to be built with privately raised money and then turned over to the National Archives to run it. Of course not everyone supported this piece of legislation.

Rep. Hamilton Fish III

Republican Congressman Hamilton Fish, who represented Hyde Park, argued that “no bill should be brought before the House for the erection of a monument to a living man… It is utterly un-American, utterly undemocratic.”   He wanted to know if there was to be a yearly maintenance cost limit on the project, and he proposed to limit annual maintenance to just $12,000, but it was rejected.

The loudest debate concerned WHERE the papers should be located.  Republicans insisted that the papers should be housed at the new National Archives building in Washington, D. C., so “statesmen of the future may go over the papers and learn how not to run a government.”

US National Archives

But FDR insisted that the library be built in Hyde Park. The intensity of the opposition can be found in the words of the Republican Congressman from Missouri, Dewey Jackson Short, who said “I submit in all fairness, that there has never been such a public display of colossal conceit or such an unblushing parade of swashbuckling egotism as is contained in this measure….Only an egocentric megalomaniac would have the nerve to ask for such a measure, and yet it is going to be crammed down our throats this afternoon by an appeal to blind partisan prejudice.”

The Republican response was so vitriolic because they knew that passage was inevitable and would require only a simple majority. And indeed the final bill was passed on July 18th, 1938.  Construction started in early 1939.

Library Construction

For FDR it was essential that his papers be housed next to his home. It was at Springwood that FDR found the strength to deal with his personal and political challenges.  It was his belief that the Library would attract researchers and historians from around the world, and that they would only truly understand him if they experienced the beauty and magic of the Hudson Valley. During the laying of the cornerstone on November 19, 1939, FDR expressed those sentiments.

“It has, therefore been my personal hope that this library, and the use of it by scholars and visitors, will come to be an integral part of a country scene which the hand of man has not greatly changed since the days of the Indians who dwelt here 300 years ago.”

On June 30th, 1941, as war raged in Europe, President Roosevelt officially opened his Library and Museum.  The poet Archibald McLeish captured FDR’s life-long ties to the Hudson River Valley in his remarks during the dedication:  “They (the papers) belong by themselves, here in this river country, on the land from which they came.”

President Roosevelt said it best when he said:

“To bring together the records of the past and to house them in buildings where they will be preserved for the use of men living in the future, a nation must believe in three things. It must believe in the past. It must believe in the future. It must, above all, believe in the capacity of its people so to learn from the past that they can gain in judgement for the creation of the future.”

Since that day in 1941, more than 13 million people have visited the FDR Library and his home, including Presidents, Prime Ministers, Kings, Queens, politicians and Hollywood celebrities. Of course people are not the only thing FDR brought to the Hudson Valley. His Civilian Conservation Corps built the Beaverkill Bridge, FDR State Park, Harriman State Park and the Pine Meadow Lake, Sam’s Point Preserve and of course the Taconic Parkway.  He also helped build multiple Post Offices, schools and roads in the region. Perhaps most importantly Franklin Roosevelt inspired the people of Dutchess County to take pride in knowing that one of our greatest presidents chose their community to house his legacy.

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FDR’s Ship Models – Part 3: Other Interesting Models

By Paul M. Sparrow, Director

Many of the ships in FDR’s collection are historically significant vessels. Others fall more into the unique and unusual category.

USS Potomac O.C. Chapman and D.L. Fernald , Early 1940s Wood, string, fabric MO 1942.250.1

Originally a United States Coast Guard patrol boat, the USS Potomac served as the presidential yacht from 1936 until 1945. FDR spent many relaxing days aboard the ship as it cruised the Potomac River, the Chesapeake Bay, and other locations.  After his death, the Potomac was decommissioned and returned to the Coast Guard. It was later sold and fell into disrepair. Eventually a non-profit organization in Oakland, California acquired the ship. It is preserved there as a national historic landmark.

This model of the Potomac was built by O.C. Chapman, D.L. Fernald, and engineers from the ship. The ship’s officers and crew presented it to Roosevelt.

USS Wabash Frank Walters and John Colbert 1922 Wood, string, metal, fabric MO 1941.7.93

Two retired sailors at Sailor’s Snug Harbor—a home for elderly seamen in Staten Island, New York— made this model of the Civil War screw frigate Wabash as a gift for FDR in 1922.  Frank Walters and John Colbert were longtime friends of Roosevelt who wanted to express their gratitude for his service to sailors during World War I. Roosevelt helped the men (“a couple of old deep water, square rigged sailormen, friends of mine”) by obtaining copies of the ship’s plans from the Navy. He prized this model “not only for the historical interest, but because it had been made by men who actually sailed on, and lived on these old ships.”

USS Macedonian Ca. 1825 Wood, string, fabric, metal MO 1941.7.90

FDR purchased this model of the USS Macedonian in New York City in March 1922. He paid $210 (about $2600 in current dollars) for it. He later displayed it in the family quarters in the White House before putting it on exhibit at the FDR Library. Roosevelt believed the model dated to around 1825. Originally a British ship, the Macedonian was captured by Commodore Stephen Decatur during the War of 1812 and refitted for service in the American navy. It was the first British Naval ship to become part of the US Navy. FDR had a special interest in the Macedonian and also collected a number of prints and paintings of it.

USS Raleigh Wood, fabric MO 1941.7.98

FDR purchased this model during his first hectic weeks as president while he was busy enacting emergency legislation to overcome the Great Depression. The Raleigh was one of thirteen frigates ordered by the Continental Congress during the early days of the United States Navy. FDR purchased this model in April 1933 for $125 (roughly $2000 in current dollars) from the S&G Gump Company of San Francisco. Franklin Roosevelt’s ability to relax with his hobbies amid great crises became a hallmark of his presidency.

HMS Bounty O.G. Haines ca. 1935 Wood, metal, string LJR 1941.7.89

This model was created by O.G. Haines of Palms, California for a “Mutiny on the Bounty” model contest designed to help promote the 1935 MGM feature film starring Charles Laughton and Clark Gable. The film recounts the famous mutiny that occurred during Vice-Admiral William Bligh’s 1787 expedition to transport breadfruit trees to the West Indies. The model was presented to President Roosevelt in August 1935.

Cutty Sark A.L. Lawbaugh ca. 1938 Wood, fabric, string LJR 1941.7.71

 

This is a particularly beautiful model, with delicate sails and painted hull. A.L. Lawbaugh of Jefferson City, Missouri presented FDR with this model of the clipper ship Cutty Sark in May 1938. Launched in 1869, the Cutty Sark was among the fastest ships involved in the China tea and Australian wool trade.

In addition to ship models FDR also collected books about naval history, ships, and even books about ship models.

Many of the books are rare first editions, some of them have both the author’s signature and FDR’s. They are typical of the kinds of books FDR collected- special versions of books on subjects he was very interested in.

There are a number of unique and unusual models in the collection. This Viking model is based on Leif Ericson’s ship and was given to FDR by the Washington State Federation of Scandinavian-American Democratic Clubs in Sept, 1937. The ship is named the FDR.

Sometimes it’s the people who give the model who are interesting. This outrigger canoe carved from highly polished brown wood is quite charming.  It has a tall mast and a brown and black fiber sail of Fijian design.  It was presented to President Franklin D. Roosevelt by Boy Scout  Troop 13 from Honolulu.  FDR included this model in the Naval Exhibition Gallery when it first opened in 1941.

We are going to end with one of my favorite models, although it is unusual in a number of ways. It is made of varnished wood and has a metal tip and a small engine that actually works.  Stitched on the floor of the back seat on red fabric: the letters F.D.R. Its about three feet long and really quite exquisite.

A 48-foot working replica of the ship is located at the Antique Boat Museum in Clayton, NY, in one of the rare instances when a real boat was based on a model. It is said to be the world’s largest and fasted runabout, powered by a Packard V-12 1,800 horsepower engine that can hit 70 miles an hour.

The model was made over several years by a prisoner of Sing Sing Prison in New York and given to Roosevelt when he was Governor of New York.  We don’t know the prisoners name, but the ships name : Pardon Me.

Special Thanks to Herman Eberhardt and the museum staff who curated the Treasures of a President: FDR and the Sea   exhibit at the South Street Seaport from which much of this information is derived.

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An Artist, a Mobster, and a Mother’s Day Gift

By William A. Harris, Deputy Director

By most accounts, Sara Delano Roosevelt was a force to be reckoned with, and by all accounts, she doted on her only child, indulged him even, but most certainly loved him dearly. She had a definite way of making her presence known. FDR and his family made their home at her Hudson Valley estate, Springwood. In Manhattan, Mrs. Roosevelt constructed adjoining townhouses on East 65th as a wedding gift for her son and his new wife, a gift that kept her close to her son, but often too close for his young bride. So it isn’t surprising that for Mother’s Day 1934, Sara determined to give a special gift to her beloved son, one that would remind him of his mother each day they were apart. The gift: a portrait of herself!

Portraits and talk of them had been a regular topic of conversation within the family for the past year. Only the previous August, the eminent artist Ellen Emmet Rand had been commissioned to paint the President’s official portrait. She had been working on the project, which required visits to Springwood and the White House into the early months of 1934. Aside from her talent and reputation as an artist, which was estimable, she could also boast family connections to FDR through her cousin Grenville Temple Emmet, FDR’s former law partner, and family associations through Eleanor Roosevelt and the Delanos. In fact, it was a Delano cousin who took Rand for her first visit to Springwood.

Tade Styka, mid-1930s. Credit: National Library of Poland

When selecting her portraitist, however, Sara Delano Roosevelt went in an entirely different direction. She eschewed a safe and traditional East coast portraitist like Rand for the chicest of chic society artists, the fashionable Tade Styka, a favorite of the European and entertainment set, a purveyor of glamor without question, but a respectable one, too, for the most part. Styka split his time between New York City and Paris. In Manhattan, the bachelor artist maintained a studio on tony Central Park South. He also led an active social life. Papers reported him crossing the Atlantic on grand liners and mixing with a clientele of the rich, famous, and infamous. He had painted France’s Marshall Foch and actress Marion Davies and a bevy of naked beauties.

To appreciate Mrs. Roosevelt’s surprising choice, one must first get a sense of the portraitist himself. Born in 1889, Styka first came to the United States in 1904 along with his father, himself an acclaimed artist, who was exhibiting at the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair. A child prodigy, the younger Styka was featured in newspapers across the United States for his extraordinary talent, especially at rendering animals and fur. Though the trip proved a disaster for his father, some of whose work was destroyed in a fire or seized by customs, Styka must have found America a place of immense opportunity, for he returned again and again, garnering attention for his bravura brushwork and virtuosity and for the names and likenesses of his clients.

Credit: National Library of Poland

During the 1900s and 1910s, Styka developed from a precocious child with undisputed ability to a prodigious young artist with obvious talent. He possessed an easy natural style that seemed casual and unforced, derivative many said of Giovanni Boldini, the Italian portraitist with whom he was sometimes compared. His work evidences a keen eye for then current styles, and he adapted his art to the times. By his early thirties, he possessed an air of old European exoticism that played well in 1920s America. He could have stepped out of an Elinor Glyn novel with his head of wavy brown hair; sturdy, athletic build; aristocratic bearing; and whiff of Ruritanian romanticism.

Styka garnered widespread notice in 1923 for a scandal involving movie stars and romance in an innocently decadent way, the kind often flamed by studio flacks. The entire business began with his daring portrait of screen siren Pola Negri—a naked back, furs sensuously screening eager eyes from moral disaster. A torrid affair ensued, of course, but Negri decamped for Hollywood. He followed. The melodrama played out in headlines across two continents. Newspapers recounted the drama in appealingly sensational reports, the kind involving copious adjectives and adverbs and wild speculation.

The story grew even more reportable when Negri became engaged to comedian Charlie Chaplin, perhaps the biggest star in the world at the time. The pair had met in Europe, and the obligatory high octane affair had followed. It was expected of movie stars. Theirs was an equally tempestuous relationship—the talented being inherently prone to intense passions, or so the papers held. Though Styka didn’t win Negri’s heart, he won a great deal of news coverage that wasn’t bad for business. As one paper observed, “Styka finds the portrait he painted of the film beauty too full of fond memories for any eyes save his.” It was soon on exhibit for everyone to see.

Styka traveled back and forth to the United States throughout the 1920s, painting subjects as varied as storied French leaders and Hollywood starlets. He became a chevalier in the French Legion of Honor and exhibited publicly in New York and Paris. He also painted his share of well-heeled Americans such as Senator William A. Clark. Styka became something of the family portraitist for the immensely wealthy Clark family doing multiple likenesses of the senator, his second wife, and their daughter, Huguette, whom he befriended and took as a student. He spent extensive time at their Santa Barbara mansion and apartments in New York City.

Styka also garnered a reputation as a master painter of women and frequently offered his views about women to the press. “It is ridiculous,” he stated, “…to say that smoking, eating candy or drinking is detrimental to beauty…In smoking I like to see a woman use a cigaret (sic) holder. She should hold it gracefully, avoiding any jerky motions or any contractions of the face in exhaling.” He remarked “that with regard to stature and features American women have not their equals in the whole world” for which he credited “the dry climate” as women “in countries with much damp weather without exception are more heavily built and have thicker features.”

Credit: National Library of Poland

By the end of the decade, Styka was well known enough that no less a sage than Walter Winchell, whose gossipy, often mean-spirited column appeared in papers nationwide, reported that the artist, “who charges them 10 Gs for their portraits, is here [New York] from Paree looking for chumps.” As for critics, their reviews were often filled with hyperbole more in line with automobile ads. The Chicago Tribune gushed “If there is genius in the world today, Styka is possessed of it.” Even the august New York Times reported that his “canvases shriek with vitality” describing them as “nervous, keen, theatrical” though “they savor of magazine covers.”

The stock market crash of 1929 didn’t initially impact Styka’s career. He continued to paint and travel back and forth to Europe. But by 1933, with banks collapsing daily, he needed money and entered into an arrangement with furniture designer and decorator James Mont, described as “the George Raft of American design, with a carnation in his button hole and brass knuckles in his pocket.” Though an acknowledged talent, Mont had a violent temper and an unseemly reputation for doing business with organized crime. He was known to have crafted art deco bars for speakeasies in Atlantic City and the homes of notorious mobsters.

Aside from the mob, Mont’s clientele included a range of celebrities, such as rising star Bob Hope, who served as best man at Mont’s wedding. The swank St. Moritz hotel provided an elegant location for his business, Salon Moderne. He described himself as a “Decorateur-Artiste” with locations in “Paris, Venice, and Egypte (with an E)” as one columnist teased, adding that his coat of arms was “a cocktail shaker rampant on a field of what looks like standing ash trays.” Mont was an unlikely partner for the artist. Times must have been tough indeed.

Mont sold a variety of stylish wares at his boutique. Styka admired Mont’s design aesthetic and had patronized the establishment. He may have also known Mont from the New York social scene, most likely nightclubs and speakeasies where Mont courted clients, including well-known mobsters, such as Frank Costello and Joe Adonis. Mont and Styka became friendly and the designer promoted Styka to his varied clientele. In mid-1933, Mont established a gallery in Atlantic City, and Styka consigned $100,000 worth of art to Mont. For any paintings sold at list price he would get a 25% to 30% commission.

Credit: National Library of Poland

Styka left for Europe shortly thereafter. Unfortunately for both men, the venture proved unsuccessful. Mont lost his entire investment. Styka lost no money out of pocket, but the lack of sales must have been disappointing. The failure of the Atlantic City venture did not end the business relationship as Mont continued promoting the artist’s paintings. In December 1933, Styka returned from Europe, and his prospects were improving. In early February, the Wildenstein and Company Gallery at 17 East 64th Street hosted an exhibit of his work. Included were his recent portraits of the crown prince and princess of Italy, painted in Turin.

The New York Times published a generally favorable, if slightly tongue-in-cheek review. Of note was a portrait of “a small boy in a white silk suit … companioned and amply guarded by a magnificent black Greenland dog.” “Tade Styka could become famous as a painter just of dogs,” the writer observed, with canines in his canvases “here and there, tucked away as engaging accessories.” He described “two dazzling nudes” as “the most incredible feats of brush gymnastics exposed in New York in a long while,” but added that “this fashionably resourceful artist does not paint all of his subjects with a brush that has been dipped into the heart of a gilded marshmallow and that has plundered the orchid of her beauty.”

Clearly in search of a plundering brush fresh from a gilded marshmallow, Mrs. Roosevelt commissioned Styka in early 1934 to do her portrait. How this came about, one can only surmise. Perhaps she had heard of him during her European travels or through her sister who lived much of the year in Paris. Or perhaps she had happened around the corner from her home to the Wildenstein Gallery and discovered Styka’s portrait of Mrs. A. O. de Kernell, “sumptuously dark, and cunning in its treatment of fabric textures.” Regardless, the estimable Mrs. James Roosevelt commissioned Styka to paint her portrait, a gift for her only child on Mother’s Day.

This is where a mobster comes into the story, and not just any mobster, but none other than Joe Adonis. An intensely vain man, hence his name, Adonis possessed a high regard for his looks and preened constantly in front of any available mirror. He was also purportedly a rapist and murderer who controlled the rackets, from prostitution to gambling, throughout Times Square and Midtown Manhattan, not to mention his home turf, Brooklyn. There, he ran his many, illegal and nefarious concerns out of an Italian restaurant. Lucky Luciano considered him a trusted lieutenant, and Adonis held a leadership position in the National Crime Syndicate.

Adonis was James Mont’s biggest client, and he had been decorating the gangster’s Brooklyn home to the tune of $50,000. Adonis also sold cars, his front, and Mont drove around New York City in a gleaming new Cadillac purchased from the gangster who also reportedly forced customers into buying “protection” insurance. Mont lobbied Adonis to commission a Styka portrait for his fancy new dining room. The gangster demurred at first. Why did he need a $4,000 painting? Mont persisted, and Adonis later recalled that Mont had gone on and on “always around Styka, the great artist he was.” The crime boss eventually relented.

Joe Adonis. Credit: NYPD

The painting would be of Mrs. Adonis and their infant son. Mont was also savvy enough to know that “more faces” in a portrait meant more money for the painting. Adonis visited Styka at his Central Park South studio one day in March 1934. There, amongst bibelots and object d’art, he made arrangements for a series of sittings. Styka was now in business with a mobster, with Mont as his agent. To seal the deal, Adonis invited Mont and Styka to a spaghetti dinner at his Brooklyn home. When asked later if he enjoyed it, Styka responded without hesitation, “yes, indeed.”

Styka began painting Mrs. Roosevelt on the same day that Adonis first visited his studio. The contrast must have been mind-numbingly jarring. He would alternate sittings between the President’s mother and Adonis’ wife and son. One can imagine Styka gossiping in French with the worldly Sara Delano Roosevelt, who had lived in Asia and Europe, about current events and common acquaintances in New York and abroad. One can just as easily picture him perhaps self-consciously, and nervously, dabbing at his palette with not only Mrs. Adonis and junior looking on, but also Adonis himself and his coterie of protectors and loyalists.

Mont was certainly pleased with the arrangement. The $4,000 fee would result in a healthy commission. Like Styka, Mont lived large. Styka would get some much needed funds, too. He required the best suits, the finest restaurants, and the most sumptuous accommodations. He had an image to maintain for his rich and famous clientele. He dined with them, entertained them, and mingled with them. As for Adonis, he would get a fine portrait from an internationally acclaimed artist that would fit perfectly in his glamorous Brooklyn dining room where spaghetti dinners were without doubt regularly served.

Styka likely completed both paintings in mid to late April. Mrs. Roosevelt’s lacks some of the flair usually associated with his portraits. Her painting, after all, could hardly “shriek with vitality,” but his touch is deft. She peers from the canvas with loving eyes, the warmth emanating from her delicately painted face focused squarely on her son. She emerges from a rich, brown background draped in Styka’s signature sables, his technique with fur as fine on Mrs. Roosevelt as it was with the crown princess of Italy. Sara Delano Roosevelt must have been pleased indeed. Unfortunately, no image exists of the Adonis work.

Styka’s portrait of Mrs. Roosevelt appeared in the press in early May 1934. It was covered extensively with photographs and stories playing up the Mother’s Day angle. No one mentioned the rather curious notion of a mother giving a portrait of herself to her son on Mother’s Day. On Sunday, May 6, 1934, Mother Roosevelt surprised her son with the painting. He had spent the day on the Presidential yacht, Sequoia, and returned to the White House to find his wife and her guests, along with his mother and Styka, at tea on the south portico. Mrs. Roosevelt allowed Styka to make the presentation.

The tea must have been a curious affair what with Eleanor Roosevelt’s guests, two women reporters and two progressive educators, mingling with Sara Delano Roosevelt and the Polish high society portraitist. The President was delighted by the gift, and the painting was hung in a prominent place in the White House. Mrs. Roosevelt must have been pleased, too, for soon thereafter Styka attended the Navy Ball Group luncheon at the Ritz Tower Hotel in New York City where the President’s mother was the guest of honor and speaker. That crowd was entirely different from the speakeasy set to be sure. Perhaps Styka netted a few new commissions.

White House Study

Alas, the Adonis portrait proved a troublesome thing. The mobster refused to pay. Mont gave Styka five hundred dollars on account. He was heading to Europe and needed the money. From Poland, the artist continued to seek final payment but found no money on his return in March 1935. Styka first threatened to sue Mont. But then, surprisingly, he told an angry and horrified Mont that he would sue Adonis! In a chance encounter on 6th Avenue in Manhattan, Styka repeated to Mont that he would sue the mobster. Mont menacingly warned, “then try, you will see what you get.” Perhaps the import of his words was lost on Styka, but that seems doubtful. Yet the artist did the unthinkable. He sued Joe Adonis. And, shockingly, he won.

The trial played out in a Manhattan courtroom. Styka wanted the $3500 he claimed was owed by Adonis. The mobster asserted that he had paid Mont for the painting. Styka argued that Mont had not served as his agent, but merely as an informal middle man and that he himself had contracted with Adonis. Thus any payment made to Mont was irrelevant. Mont sounded nervous on the stand. Adonis came across like a gangster being sued—all bewilderment and innocence and probably wondering how he’d gotten mixed up in a lawsuit with an artist who had painted the President’s mother. He didn’t need that kind of heat. To complicate matters, Mont had gone bankrupt in late 1934.

Mrs. Roosevelt’s name came up in testimony, but it is obvious the judge, and most likely Adonis, didn’t want to draw attention to the connection. Styka’s attorney used her commission to set the date on which the deal with Adonis had been struck. His attorney hammered away at Mont and Adonis over timelines. That his client had also painted the President’s mother certainly gave Styka added credibility. The judge found in the artist’s favor. The suit cost Mont Adonis’ business. Fortunately, it cost neither Mont nor Styka their lives. The verdict was upheld on appeal. Styka received the balance due and interest, but no more spaghetti dinners in Brooklyn.

Styka’s career seemed to sputter for a period afterwards. A 1936 joint exhibit with his brother Adam earned the pair a terrible review in The New York Times. “The adjective slick,” the writer observed, “seems inevitable.” Styka’s works were described as “pyrotechnic” and “very chic and mostly in the treble cleff.” Yet ultimately the reviewer wasn’t impressed, considering one study in particular “one of the most unpleasant pictures ever painted.” Styka’s brother suffered harsher criticism. The reviewer suggested that “the artist might learn some perhaps pertinent lessons in chromatic restraint” by seeing the new Technicolor, Marlene Dietrich picture, The Garden of Allah.

By 1937, he was exhibiting paintings with his brother at Eaton’s Department Store in Winnipeg, Canada. He still lived in his Central Park South studio, and on his last trip abroad before the war, cameras caught him strolling with the Duke and Duchess de Nemours in Deauville. Yet on his return to New York, he travelled in second class on the once grand Aquitania. Regardless, he rarely economized. He made the men’s best-dressed list that same year and remained active on the New York social scene, hosting teas in his studio with a steady stream of guests that included aging society dowagers, a variety of Polish counts, and Huguette Clark, whom he continued to teach and escort around town.

Styka, Ilka Chase, and Jimmy Durante, Polish Relief Fund, 1940. Credit: NY Public Library

In his fifties, he married a model. The union produced a daughter, who became Huguette Clark’s goddaughter, and ultimately her heir in a much publicized controversy following Clark’s death at age 104. Always active within the Polish community, he supported war relief efforts after Germany invaded Poland in 1939. He also became an American citizen and registered for the draft. And in a nod to his connections in the Polish community, in the election year 1948, he was commissioned to paint a portrait of President Harry S. Truman. He did so at the White House to the approval of Mrs. Truman. He died in 1954 at age 65. Unfortunately, his reputation has languished. He is perhaps best known for his painting of Theodore Roosevelt as a Rough Rider from which the Roosevelt Room in the White House takes its name and for his association with the reclusive heiress Huguette Clark. He needs a proper re-appraisal.

Styka’s portrait of Mrs. Roosevelt continued to hang in the White House after her death in 1941. As for Adonis, he played a major role in organized crime for the rest of his life. He returned to Italy in the 1950s and died in police custody in 1971. Mont revived his business, but eventually served prison time for assault. His designs have enjoyed renewed appreciation. Styka is little known today. Perhaps he was too much of his times, not timeless. He lives on at the Roosevelt Library. The portrait of Mrs. Roosevelt—her Mother’s Day gift to her son—is part of the permanent collection. It was most recently exhibited in 2016. Draped in sables, she still possesses that loving gaze for her beloved little boy, the President of the United States.

Posted in Found in the Archives, From the Museum | Tagged , ,

FDR’s Ship Models – Part Two : 20th Century Naval Ships

By Paul M. Sparrow, director

Franklin Roosevelt’s ship model collection is truly remarkable for its size and for the variety of models. During the latter part of his presidency he received many models of war ships.

Having served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy in WWI, President Roosevelt became the Commander in Chief of the largest and most powerful Navy ever assembled during World War II.

USS North Carolina ca. 1937, Wood MO 1942.119.10

Secretary of the Navy Claude Swanson presented this model of the battleship USS North Carolina to FDR as a Christmas gift in 1937.  The ship was then under construction as part of Roosevelt’s naval expansion program. FDR wrote Swanson that he was “thrilled” with the model. “It makes me long to go for a cruise on her just as soon as she is commissioned,” he noted. Roosevelt kept this model in his White House study before putting it on display at the FDR Library. The North Carolina was commissioned in 1941 and participated in operations throughout the Pacific during World War II.

One of the most interesting models comes from one of FDR’s least favorite people.

France, Early 1940s Metal, fabric, glass, wood MO 1945.70.4

Based loosely on a French submarine called the Surcouf, it can submerge, fire its guns, and launch its torpedoes. The model was built by an unknown French petty officer in Bizerte, Tunisia while it was under German occupation. General Charles DeGaulle gave FDR this model submarine while visiting Washington in July 1944. A delighted Roosevelt tested the model in the boat basin at the Taylor Naval Research Center near Washington D.C. He later gave it to his grandson, Curtis Roosevelt.

When Eleanor Roosevelt noted that he couldn’t give away a state gift, FDR said DeGaulle was only president of the French Committee for Liberation, not a head of state.

It was not the first model given to FDR by the French. This photo shows Admiral Raymond Fernard presenting the President with a model of the battleship Richelieu, on March 19, 1943. This is a detailed wooden model that is still a part of the collection, although it needs conservation.

USS Wichita Frederic A. Craven Ca. 1941 Wood, metal MO 1941.7.83

The USS Wichita was a 614-foot heavy cruiser constructed at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. Commissioned in 1939, the ship was part of the naval expansion program undertaken by President Roosevelt during the 1930s. Frederic A. Craven of La Porte, Indiana built this model of the Wichita and sent it to FDR in January 1941 as a gift.  It delighted the President, since he did not own any models of this class of cruiser. “Your gift,” he wrote Craven, “will have an honored place in my collection in the Library at Hyde Park. . . . I consider it a distinct addition to my collection.”

Motor Torpedo (PT) Boat, Higgins Industries, Inc. 1944 Wood, brass, glass MO 1945.8.1

Some of FDR’s ship models were gifts from defense contractors. This model of a motor torpedo (PT) boat was presented to him on June 1, 1944 by Andrew Jackson Higgins, president of Higgins Industries of New Orleans, Louisiana. Higgins built thousands of specialized boats and landing craft for the military during World War II.

These vessels made it possible to stage massive amphibious invasions in Europe and the Pacific. Five days after Higgins gave this model to FDR, thousands of American soldiers came ashore on D-Day in Normandy aboard Higgins landing craft. Roosevelt quickly put the model on display at the FDR Library.

USS Benham, George H. Maynor, 1941 MO 1943.190.8

This 50” inch model of the destroyer USS Benham was placed in front of a mirror.  It was built by George Maynor and sent to FDR by Maynor’s grandfather. The president invited George to the White House but he had already enlisted in the Navy.

George Maynor was on the deck of the USS Hornet on April 18th, 1942 when the Doolittle Raiders took off on their bombing run to Tokyo. He survived its sinking in October 1942 at the Battle of Santa Cruz.

There are several aircraft carriers in the collection. This model of the USS Casablanca was presented to FDR by Henry J. Kaiser on March 18, 1943. The actual Escort Carrier was christened the following month by Eleanor Roosevelt, the first of 50 Casablanca-class carriers built during the war.

One of the largest models is this World War 1 German Light Cruiser of the Emden Karlsrule Class. It was sent to FDR in Oct. 1944 by Lt. Gen. George Patton after his troops discovered it during the Battle of Metz near the Moselle River. Its slightly over TEN feet long.

Special Thanks to Herman Eberhardt and the museum staff who curated the Treasures of a President: FDR and the Sea exhibit at the South Street Seaport from which much of this information is derived.

Posted in From the Museum | Tagged , , , ,

FDR’s Ship Models Part One: Sailing Ships

By Paul M. Sparrow, director

Franklin Delano Roosevelt was an avid collector – of objects, people and most importantly ideas. He was a connoisseur of naval art, stamps, rare first edition books and of course ship models. While he was well known for his stamp collecting, his first love was the sea. His fascination with everything nautical was handed down from both sides of his family.  The Delano’s, his mother’s side, made fortunes and lost fortunes and made them again in the adventurous world of clipper ships, privateers and maritime trading. The Roosevelts also had oceanic connections as investors, owners and builders. Several of the models in the collection have a direct link to his family.

John Aspinwall, the President’s great-grandfather, was a New York City merchant and privateer whose sons, William Henry and John Lloyd Aspinwall, owned a ship building firm, Howland and Aspinwall.

Rainbow, John C. Weeks, Wood, string, metal, fabric MO 1941.7.72

They launched the Rainbow in 1845, the first of the “extreme clippers.” With its sharp bow and sleek lines it was designed for speed rather than for cargo capacity. It quickly established itself as the fastest sailing ship in the world. John C. Weeks of Provincetown, Massachusetts gave FDR this model of the Rainbow when the President stopped there during a 1933 sailing trip along the New England coast.  “As you know,” FDR later wrote Weeks, “I take great interest in ships and ship models and have spent many happy hours with my collection to which the ‘Rainbow’ becomes a valuable addition.”  FDR named his youngest son John Aspinwall Roosevelt.

Sea Witch, Charles V. Nielsen Ca. 1936-1937 MO 1941.7.62

The year after launching the Rainbow the Aspinwalls launched the Sea Witch, which was even faster. The Sea Witch set a speed record for the journey from Hong Kong, China to New York – 74 days – a record which stood until 2003!  This model of the Sea Witch was made by model builder and restorer Charles V. Nielsen of Hasbrouck Heights, New Jersey.  Nielsen sent it to President Roosevelt as a gift in 1937.

New Bedford whaling brig, ca. 1840, Wood, ivory, string MO 1941.7.99

Roosevelt’s Delano ancestors included owners and captains of whaling ships. This model of a New Bedford whaling brig is believed to have been made in the 1840s by a seaman who served aboard the vessel. It is not known how FDR acquired the model, but it was in his collection as early as 1924.

As a child, he heard tales of the whaling trade from his family and spent time in New Bedford during frequent visits to the Delano homestead in Fairhaven. In 1929 Roosevelt wrote about his childhood fascination with whaling in an introduction to Ashley Clifford’s Whale Ships of New Bedford.

“Forty years ago a little boy sat on the old string-piece of his grandfather’s stone wharf at Fairhaven. Close by lay a whaleship, out in the stream another rode at anchor, and over on the New Bedford shore, near the old winding wooden bridge, a dozen tall spars overtopped the granite warehouses. Even then he felt that these great ships were but the survivors of a mightier age…”

Mary Isaac Delano ca. 1827 Wood, string, MO 1941.7.96

This model was built around 1827 by Captain Isaac Delano of Marion, Massachusetts. Isaac Delano was a distant relative of the President’s mother, and the model was passed down to Isaac’s grandson, Howard A. Delano of York, Pennsylvania. In July 1933, Howard Delano wrote to FDR offering to give him “this heir-loom of the Delano Family as a gift to its most distinguished son.” Roosevelt responded immediately, writing “I should be perfectly delighted to have the model . . . particularly so, as Captain Isaac Delano was a friend of my grandfather, Warren Delano.”

The FDR Presidential Library and Museum opened in June of 1941, and FDR personally selected the models for display in the original Naval Room.  Despite its name, FDR filled his Naval Room with both naval and merchant ship models. The admission fee was 25 cents.

West Wind Leander D. Lovell Ca. late 1930s Wood, fabric, string MO 1941.7.76

Leander D. Lovell created this elaborate model of the clipper ship West Wind and sent it to FDR as a gift. Roosevelt put the model on display in the living quarters of the White House and later agreed to exhibit it at the 1939 New York World’s Fair. In 1941, he included it in the inaugural display in the Naval Exhibition Room at the FDR Library.

FDRs cousin and close confidant Margaret “Daisy” Suckley took this photo of him reading a naval manuscript in the White House study surrounded by his models. In the background you can see the USS Constitution. Known affectionately as “Old Ironsides,” the Constitution is the most famous ship of the early American navy.

MO 1945.70.1

Of all his ships, this model of the USS Constitution was his favorite. FDR purchased it in 1914, when he was Assistant Secretary of the Navy. It had originally belonged to Dr. Bailey Washington, a surgeon in the U.S. Navy. Family tradition claimed the model had been made at the Washington Navy Yard and given to Dr. Washington while he was stationed there in the 1830s or 1840s.  Roosevelt personally re-rigged this model while he was Governor of New York and he always kept it nearby. During his presidency he displayed it in a prominent spot in his private White House study. It remained there until he donated it to the Roosevelt Library shortly before his death.

Engagement Between Constitution and Guerriere Mid-nineteenth century. MO 1941.3.185

FDR also collected more than one hundred paintings, prints, engravings and drawings of the ship. This painting depicts the legendary battle of August 19, 1812, when the Constitution clashed with the British frigate HMS Guerriere. During the engagement, shots fired by the Guerriere bounced harmlessly off the Constitution’s hull, prompting her crew to nickname her “Old Ironsides.” A devastating series of broadsides by the Constitution decimated the Guerriere and led to her capture.  The oldest commissioned U.S. warship still afloat, the USS Constitution occupies a unique place in American naval history.

Even though he is said to have rigged this model, FDR was not a model maker. There is only one existing scale model we know of that he personally constructed.

This wood and canvas 19th century schooner model was made by FDR and given to his “right hand woman” Missy Lehand. It has 17 sails and is 9.5 inches stem to stern. This model is currently owned by Ms. Lehand’s relatives.

Though he did not build scale-model ships, FDR did construct miniature working sailboats. FDR created these for his children and for his own amusement. This photo was taken at the family retreat in Campobello, Brunswick. They raced these sailboats and trophies were awarded each year.

The main ship model collection storage room at the Library is downstairs and visible to the public.  President Roosevelt’s personal collection of around 400 ship models is unique in the National Archives Presidential Library System, and may be unique in the world as it combines such a wide range of ship types. Roosevelt purchased some, many others were gifts from friends, admirers, public figures, ship builders and foreign leaders.  In Part Two we will look at the models of 20th Century Naval Ships.

Special Thanks to Herman Eberhardt and the museum staff who curated the Treasures of a President: FDR and the Sea   exhibit at the South Street Seaport from which much of this information is derived.

Posted in Found in the Archives, From the Museum | Tagged , ,

FDR’s “The Federalist” – A closer look at a priceless book

By Paul M. Sparrow, director

They don’t look very impressive, but they are two of the most remarkable books in Franklin Roosevelt’s personal library. This first edition, two volume set of The Federalist printed in 1788 by J. and A. M’Lean of New York, is historically significant, extremely rare, and has never been publicly displayed. Until now. In honor of National Library Week these books will be on display at the FDR Library for a limited time.

Known today as the Federalist Papers, the 85 articles and essays contained in The Federalist were originally published as a series of editorials in the Independent Journal, a New York newspaper, under the pseudonym Publius. The actual authors were a rather distinguished group; Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay – three of the most ardent supporters of the proposed new U.S. Constitution. The articles were written to convince skeptical New Yorkers that the country needed a strong federal government. Many experts consider this one of the rarest and most important books in American political history. Only about 500 were printed. It is certainly the most detailed and compelling argument in favor of the new Constitution, providing an intellectual and political foundation on which the fledgling United States Federal Government was built.

But the new Constitution had powerful enemies as Hamilton wrote in Federalist #1

Among the most formidable of the obstacles which the new Constitution will have to encounter may readily be distinguished the obvious interest of a certain class of men in every State to resist all changes which may hazard a diminution of the power, emolument, and consequence of the offices they hold under the State establishments; and the perverted ambition of another class of men, who will either hope to aggrandize themselves by the confusions of their country, or will flatter themselves with fairer prospects of elevation from the subdivision of the empire into several partial confederacies than from its union under one government.

New York was important to the ratification process because of its size and population. The vote took place in Poughkeepsie on July 26th, 1788. But by that time the Constitution had already been ratified by a majority of the states.

The actual authorship of some of the articles has been a subject of contentious debate over the years. Scholars have investigated Hamilton’s and Madison’s notes and recent computer driven semantic analysis has led to a consensus on who wrote which articles. (full listing here) But the controversy lives on, and FDR’s precious books may help resolve one of the issues. Or re-ignite the controversy.

These books were originally owned by Timothy Ford, a well-known Federalist from New Jersey. His father Jacob was an important figure in colonial America and the Ford Mansion, used as Washington’s Headquarters during the winter of 1779, still stands as a National Historic site in Morristown. Alexander Hamilton was on Washington’s staff at the time and may have spent time at the Ford Mansion and probably knew Timothy Ford.

On the front inside cover Mr. Ford makes some very interesting notes – specifying who wrote certain chapters. He noted that:

“2nd , 3rd , 4th & 54th [articles] were written by Mr. Jay. The 10th – 14th & from 37th to 48th inclusive, by Mr. Madison – The 18th, 19th – & 20th by both Madison and Mr. Hamilton, jointly – all the rest were written by Mr. Hamilton -. This information was obtained from a manuscript of Mr. Hamiltons found after his death, among his papers.”

This does not exactly match current thinking.  While it is commonly accepted that Mr. Jay wrote articles 2, 3, 4 & 5, most scholars attribute #64 to Mr. Jay, not #54. In some early reports regarding authorship the “5” in 54 is overwritten with the number 6. This may be simply an error in penmanship. Or something new.

It is Mr. Ford’s statement that 18, 19 and 20 were jointly written by Hamilton and Madison that addresses one of the most enduring controversies. Both Hamilton and Madison claimed authorship of these three articles, and current thinking is that Madison wrote them.

In addition to Mr. Ford’s note, there is a comment written in a different ink by an R.C.H. that explains Mr. Ford’s writings were transferred when the volumes were rebound. There is a number 51 written in the same color ink, probably by R.C.H. The identity of R.C.H. is not known at this time.

In 1936 Ambassador Norman Armour sent President Roosevelt these books as a gift. We do not know how he acquired them, but he was a colorful character.

credit: Library of Congress

Norman Armour was a State Department Second Secretary working in Russia during World War I, and when the revolution broke out he helped rescue Myra Koudashev, a Russian Princess, and eventually married her. He later served as Ambassador to Haiti, Canada, Argentina and Spain during FDR’s administration and was considered one of the top Foreign Service officials. In August of 1936 he sent the two priceless books to FDR at the White House – and heard nothing in return. In December he wrote to Marvin McIntyre, one of FDR’s closest aides, and asked about the books.

Amb. Armour apparently saw Mr. McIntyre in January, 1937 and then wrote ANOTHER letter on January 20th asking about the books and finally on January 21st, McIntyre responded telling Ambassador Armour that the books had arrived and that they were “now reposing among the President’s books” and that “he was delighted with it.”

Franklin Roosevelt loved books and began collecting them as a child. At the time of his death he had approximately 22,000 volumes in his personal collection, which he gave to the FDR Library and Museum.

About 900 of those books were personally selected by FDR to be kept in the bookcases in his private study at the library. Those books were the ones he loved most, including his collection of Kipling, Robert Louis Stevenson, and the signed editions of Winston Churchill’s many literary efforts.

In the Chippendale bookcase immediately behind his desk FDR kept a fascinating set of books,  including Poems by Charlotte Bronte and poetry by Robert Browning, Following the Equator : A Journey Around the World by Mark Twain, a whole series of books by Charles Dickens, and The Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe. But the masterpiece in this cabinet is The Federalist.

In honor of National Library Week the two volumes of The Federalist will be on display in the Library. This is the first time these books have been publicly displayed.

You can find a complete listing of the Federalist Papers and their presumed authors here

https://www.congress.gov/resources/display/content/The+Federalist+Papers

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Federalist_Papers

The National Archives provides a deeply sourced background of the Federalist Papers here

https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-04-02-0151-0001

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Images of Internment

By Paul M. Sparrow, director

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Manzanar Camp, Dorothea Lange, 1942

Throughout American history our presidents have struggled to find the right balance between the highest ideals of our founding charters and the cold realities of national security. This is especially true in times of war. President John Adams passed the Alien and Sedition Acts, Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus, and Woodrow Wilson suppressed free speech and trampled on the First Amendment.

Seventy-five years ago, at the beginning of World War II, one of our greatest champions of human rights approved the incarceration of approximately 80,000 American citizens, and another 40,000 legal aliens , in the name of national security. President Franklin Roosevelt’s signing of Executive Order 9066 on February 19, 1942, provided the legal basis for the removal and confinement of people of Japanese descent living on the West Coast.

“Evacuees” in Los Angeles load their baggage onto a train that will take them to an “assembly center.” Clem Albers, 1942

“Evacuees” in Los Angeles load their baggage onto a train that will take them to an “assembly center.”
Clem Albers, 1942

The President was under tremendous pressure from military commanders, members of congress and political and business leaders in California, Oregon and Washington.  Among the prominent voices calling for the forced removal of Japanese Americans was Earl Warren, the Attorney General of California who was soon to be its governor. American citizens were frightened, angry and vengeful. There was sincere concern about espionage and sabotage, and fear that the Japanese Empire could attack or even invade the West Coast at any time. Leading newspaper columnists demanded action.

The “dastardly” surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, and Japan’s brutal military expansion throughout Asia, enflamed the entrenched and widespread racism of that time. It is important to look closely at what happened so we can understand it, and prevent it from happening again. Because behind the bluster and outrage there was no serious evidence that Japanese Americans posed a threat to the United States. In fact FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover and Attorney General Francis Biddle both initially opposed relocation.

A contingent of military police at the Manzanar Assembly Center. This “assembly center” was later converted into a permanent “relocation center.”

A contingent of military police at the Manzanar Assembly Center. This “assembly center” was later converted into a permanent “relocation center.”

The FDR Library and Museum’s new exhibit, “Images of Internment: The Incarceration of Japanese Americans During World War II” features more than 200 photographs documenting the notification, assembly, relocation and incarceration of 120,000 Japanese Americans from 1942 until 1945. These images are an extraordinary record, taken by some of our greatest photographers, of a terrible injustice and the incredible dignity and resilience of its victims.

Members of the Mochida family wait in Hayward, California, for their “evacuation” bus. Each wears an ID tag. The family operated a nursery and five greenhouses in Hayward. Dorothea Lange May 8, 1942

Members of the Mochida family wait in Hayward, California, for their “evacuation” bus. Each wears an ID tag. The family operated a nursery and five greenhouses in Hayward.
Dorothea Lange May 8, 1942

Shortly after EO 9066 was signed, the new War Relocation Authority (WRA) hired Dorothea Lange to document the relocation process. Ms. Lange was well known for her heart wrenching photographs of Americans struggling through the Great Depression. She immediately began photographing Japanese families as they were forced to sell off their property and prepare for their removal.

dorothea_lange_1942From her home base in Berkeley, California she followed families from their homes, to the assembly points, to the hastily constructed holding centers built  at racetracks, state fairgrounds, and other public spaces, and finally to the camps themselves. She went to the first permanent camp at Manzanar, located in the Owens Valley in eastern California. She documented the hardships of these honorable hardworking people as they were forced to give up everything and move into wooden barracks in the middle of the desert.

People incarcerated in the camps worked at a variety of jobs. These women at the Manzanar Relocation Center are making camouflage nets for the military. Dorothea Lange July 1, 1942

People incarcerated in the camps worked at a variety of jobs. These women at the Manzanar Relocation Center are making camouflage nets for the military.
Dorothea Lange July 1, 1942

Ansel Adams was one of America’s best known photographers, and a good friend of Ms. Lange’s. He was deeply distressed by the Japanese internment and got permission from the WRA to visit Manzanar and photograph what was happening there.

ansel_adams_1947

He went to the camp several times in 1943 and 1944, and was under strict orders not to shoot the armed guards and barbed wire. But the underlying injustice of the camps could not escape his lens.

Rows of housing units at the Manzanar Relocation Center. This camp was located 230 miles northeast of Los Angeles at the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Ansel Adams 1943

Rows of housing units at the Manzanar Relocation Center. This camp was located 230 miles northeast of Los Angeles at the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada Mountains.
Ansel Adams 1943

U.S. Army Corporal Jimmie Shohara, formerly of the Manzanar Relocation Center in California. Ansel Adams 1943

U.S. Army Corporal Jimmie Shohara, formerly of the Manzanar Relocation Center in California.
Ansel Adams 1943

Kay Fukoda, who was incarcerated at the Manzanar camp in California, volunteered to serve in the U.S. Army Nurse Corps. Ansel Adams 1943

Kay Fukoda, who was incarcerated at the Manzanar camp in California, volunteered to serve in the U.S. Army Nurse Corps.
Ansel Adams 1943

His images capture both the military precision of the barracks, and the deeply human pain of those trapped within.  While few of Lange’s photographs were seen during the war, many of Adam’s images were exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1944 and later published in book form in “Born Free and Equal: The Story of Loyal Japanese-Americans.”

More than thirty thousand young Japanese American men and women—including thousands of volunteers and draftees from the camps—served in America’s military during World War II.  Adam’s photographed some of them, and their faces tell a powerful story. Many served honorably in the famed 442nd Regimental Combat Team, one of the most highly decorated units in the Army.

Other photographers are also represented in the exhibit, including Clem Albers, Francis Stewart and Hikaru Iwasaki, the only Japanese American hired as a staff photographer by the WRA. There are also photographs taken by George and Frank Hirahara, a father and son who were incarcerated at the Heart Mountain camp in Wyoming.

Ayako Matsushita on her graduation day from Heart Mountain High School. Before the war she attended Marshall High School in Los Angeles. Frank Hirahara 1944

Ayako Matsushita on her graduation day from Heart Mountain High School. Before the war she attended Marshall High School in Los Angeles.
Frank Hirahara 1944

First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt was very concerned about the plight of the Japanese Americans, and had privately opposed the internment. She spoke out in their defense writing that:

“We must learn to think of the people in these groups as individuals, not as groups: we must treat them as individuals. They, on their part have an obligation to refuse to listen to arguments and false statements made by agents of our enemies who will try to trade on an unfairness or bitterness. We must remember that we cannot tell the difference between a loyal and a disloyal citizen… just by looking at him or his name, by seeing the color of his skin, or by hearing him talk.”

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Mrs. Roosevelt visited the Gila River Camp in Arizona in April, 1943, and was harshly criticized for it by many. She wrote in her “My Day” column that “The sooner we get the young Japanese out of these camps the better.” She supported efforts to permit students to leave the camps to attend college.

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One of the most haunting images in the exhibit is of Risa and Yasubei Hirano and their son George posed in front of an American flag. Risa is holding a photograph of her son Shigera in uniform. The Hiranos were held at the Colorado River camp, and this image captures both the patriotism and the deep sadness these proud Japanese Americans felt. The photographer is unknown.

There were several legal challenges that slowly worked their way through the court system, but the Supreme Court approved the military’s decision to create exclusionary zones allowing them to remove “any or all persons.” The Supreme Court did rule in late 1944 that the government could not detain a citizen who was “concededly loyal” in the case involving Mitsuye Endo.  But at that point the end was near.

Military concerns about a possible Japanese invasion faded as the war progressed, and the WRA began allowing increasing numbers of “camp residents” to leave. They enlisted in the military, enrolled in colleges or took jobs away from the West Coast. By the end of 1944 more than 40,000 had been released. On January 2, 1945 the exclusion order was lifted, meaning those still in the camps were free to return home. But many no longer had homes.

Mrs. Hido Kanow, the mother of four sons serving in the army, bids farewell to a friend as her train departs from the Rohwer Relocation Center in Arkansas for the West Coast. Unidentified photographer July 26, 1945

Mrs. Hido Kanow, the mother of four sons serving in the army, bids farewell to a friend as her train departs from the Rohwer Relocation Center in Arkansas for the West Coast.
Unidentified photographer July 26, 1945

In the post-war period, the Japanese Internment story faded into the background. But over time historians and survivors began clamoring for an official government apology.

Decaying barracks at the Poston Relocation Center in Arizona several months after the departure of the “evacuees.” Hikaru Iwasaki 1945

Decaying barracks at the Poston Relocation Center in Arizona several months after the departure of the “evacuees.”
Hikaru Iwasaki 1945

In 1976 President Gerald Ford revoked Executive Order 9066, and President Jimmy Carter later created a commission to determine how the government should respond. In 1988 President Ronald Reagan signed the Civil Liberties Act of 1988. It provided for an official government apology and granted $20,000 in restitution to all surviving people relocated under EO 9066.

In his book “Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Champion of Freedom” Conrad Black wrote that the Japanese internment was “One of the more discreditable episodes in the entire Roosevelt era.” The American Civil Liberties Union would later call it the “worst single wholesale violation of civil rights of American citizens in our history” although they did not challenge the order in court during the war. Roosevelt himself said that “To keep a large number of loyal American citizens in concentration camps was certainly not consistent with the principles for which the Unites States was fighting” according to his speechwriter Sam Rosenman.

The Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum is presenting “Images of Internment” because it is critically important to examine both the successes and failures of any great leader to truly understand them. President Roosevelt led America through two of its worst crises, the Great Depression and World War II. His extraordinary leadership helped create the modern world with all of the freedoms we enjoy today. Executive Order 9066 reminds us that even our greatest leaders can make mistakes when the voice of the people drowns out the voice of reason. As Abraham Lincoln once said:

“Our government rests in public opinion. Whoever can change public opinion, can change the government.”


To learn more about Japanese Internment you can visit these sites:

FDR Library – Japanese American Internment:  World War II “Teachable Moment”
http://www.fdrlibraryvirtualtour.org/page07-15.asp

Japanese American internment video, from the FDR Library’s Pare Lorentz Center
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5VkrqrjyIwk

FDR and Japanese American Internment
http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/archives/pdfs/internment.pdf

Japanese Relocation During World War II
https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/japanese-relocation

Manzanar National Historic Site
https://www.nps.gov/manz/index.htm

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FDR’s Four Historic Inaugurations

By Paul M. Sparrow, director Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum

Franklin D. Roosevelt is the only person who will ever have FOUR presidential inaugurations (thanks to the 22nd Amendment.) And each and every one of his inaugurations was historic in its own way.  Every president from Washington to Roosevelt had been inaugurated in March. Why? Because the U.S. Constitution originally stipulated that the Federal Government would start on March 4th each year. FDR’s first inauguration in 1933 was the last inauguration held in March. The inauguration date was changed with the passage of the 20th Amendment, which moved the date up to January 20th.  During his first inauguration President Roosevelt delivered one of the most famous lines in American history – “The only thing we have to fear, is, fear itself.” But that line does not appear until the 7th draft of the speech. You can find all of the drafts of the speech here.

President Roosevelt taking the oath of office at his first Inauguration.  March 4, 1933.

President Roosevelt taking the oath of office at his first Inauguration. March 4, 1933.

FDR’s second inauguration in 1937 was historic because it was the first one held on January 20th (again, thanks to the 20th Amendment.) FDR’s 1936 victory was the largest landslide in American history, winning 523 electoral votes which equaled 98.49%! His inauguration was also the first time the vice president was inaugurated at the same time as the president. His second inaugural address is best known for his description of the victims of the brutal economic conditions of the Great Depression. “I see one-third of a nation ill-housed, ill-clad, ill-nourished.”

President Roosevelt watching the Inaugural Parade from a replica of Andrew Jackson's "Hermitage" in front of the White House.  January 20, 1937.

President Roosevelt watching the Inaugural Parade from a replica of Andrew Jackson’s “Hermitage” in front of the White House. January 20, 1937.

Roosevelt’s third inauguration in 1941 was historic because no one had ever been elected to a third term before, so it was the first, and will be the only, third inauguration. War had broken out in Europe when Nazi Germany invaded Poland in 1939. London had been reduced to rubble by the German Blitz. Despite FDR’s best efforts the American people were still strongly isolationist. But FDR knew that America would eventually join the global conflict. His speech challenged Americans to live up to their ideals. “In the face of great perils never before encountered, our strong purpose is to protect and to perpetuate the integrity of democracy. For this we muster the spirit of America, and the faith of America. We do not retreat. We are not content to stand still. As Americans, we go forward, in the service of our country, by the will of God.”

Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt riding in an open car, returning to the White House from FDR's third inauguration. January 20, 1941.

Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt riding in an open car, returning to the White House from FDR’s third inauguration. January 20, 1941.

Franklin Roosevelt’s fourth inauguration is historic for a number of reasons. No other person has or ever will be elected to a fourth term. The ceremony was held on the South Portico of the White House for the first time, allegedly because of the austerity created by the war. But FDR was a sick man and his declining health may have contributed to the change of location. FDR’s fourth inaugural address was perhaps the shortest ever given, just a little over five minutes long. But FDR’s spirit is clear. ”Our Constitution of 1787 was not a perfect instrument; it is not perfect yet. But it provided a firm base upon which all manner of men, of all races and colors and creeds, could build our solid structure of democracy. And so today, in this year of war, 1945, we have learned lessons, at a fearful cost, and we shall profit by them.”

FDR delivers his fourth inaugural address from the balcony at the White House. January 20, 1945.

FDR delivers his fourth inaugural address from the balcony at the White House. January 20, 1945.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt died 89 days later on April 12th, in Warm Springs, Georgia while recovering from his 14,000 mile trip to Yalta for the conference with Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin. His legacy lives on in America’s great accomplishments: Social Security, Minimum Wage, environmental protection, American military supremacy, the United Nations and expanded human rights for all. You can learn more about the presidency of Franklin Roosevelt by visiting the FDR Presidential Library and Museum in Hyde Park, or by exploring the web site. www.fdrlibrary.org

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The Casablanca Conference – Unconditional Surrender

By Paul M. Sparrow, Director

In January, 1943, President Roosevelt embarked on a secret mission that would determine the course of World War Two, and ultimately the world we live in today. His destination – Casablanca, Morocco. His goal – to finalize Allied military plans with the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill. It was a precedent shattering odyssey. No president had ever left the United States during wartime, or ever visited Africa, or even ever traveled in an airplane. No president since Lincoln had visited an active battlefield. And FDR did all of those things without the press finding out.

The Allies had landed in North Africa just two months earlier, and after a series of bloody setbacks had Germany’s Field Marshall Erwin Rommel – the Desert Fox – on the run. The looming question was – what to do next? The conference would force top military leaders of Great Britain and the United States to hash out their differences and agree on a strategy for victory.

ALLIES GRAND STRATEGY CONFERENCE IN N AFRICA: PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT MEETS MR CHURCHILL. ONE OF THE MOST MOMENTOUS CONFERENCES OF THIS WAR BEGAN ON JANUARY 14, 1943 NEAR CASABLANCA, WHEN PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT AND MR CHURCHILL MET TO SURVEY THE ENTIRE FIELD OF WAR, THEATRE BY THEATRE. THEY WERE ACCOMPANIED BY THE CHIEFS OF STAFF OF THE TWO COUNTRIES. ALL RESOURCES WERE MARSHALLED FOR THE ACTIVE AND CONCERTED EXECUTION OF THE ALLIES' PLANS FOR THE OFFENSIVE CAMPAIGN OF 1943. MR ROOSEVELT LATER DESCRIBED THE MEETING AS THE 'UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER' MEETING, BY WHICH HE MEANT THAT THE UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER BY THE AXIS WAS THE ONLY ASSURANCE OF FUTURE WORLD PEACE. GENERAL DE GAULLE AND GENERAL GIRAUD ALSO MET AT CASABLANCA AND DISCUSSED THE UNIFICATION OF THE WAR EFFORT OF THE FRENCH EMPIRE. (A 14061) Mr Churchill with President Roosevelt and Chiefs of Staff at one of the many important meetings held at the Villa. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205147296

Mr Churchill with President Roosevelt and Chiefs of Staff at one of the many important meetings held at the Villa. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205147296

Although hundreds of pages of detailed plans and contingencies were written during the Casablanca Conference, two words stand out as perhaps the most significant of any uttered during the entire war. Two words that defined President Roosevelt’s pledge that “…the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.” Two words that would set an almost impossible target for the greatest military force the world has ever known – “Unconditional Surrender.”

President Roosevelt’s journey began on January 9th in Washington, D.C. when he boarded his special train and headed north. Because of wartime security it was not unusual for the President’s travel plans to remain classified, and the press assumed he was headed to his home in Hyde Park, New York. In Baltimore he secretly changed direction and headed south for Miami. In all of his previous voyages across the Atlantic FDR had traveled by his favorite means of transportation – ship. But the dark waters of the Atlantic had turned into a killing zone, a deadly hide-and-seek between German submarines and Allied transports. Hundreds of cargo ships and thousands of sailors had been lost to torpedoes in the preceding months as Nazi submarine “wolf packs” prowled the seas. Their mission was to strangle Great Britain by cutting off the vital supplies those cargo ships carried. Even traveling by battleship was considered too dangerous for the President. The only “safe” means of travel to Africa was by plane. So in Miami he boarded a Pan American seaplane, the Dixie Clipper, and at 6:30 am FDR became the first president to fly while in office.

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FDR with Otis Bryan aboard aircraft enroute to North Africa.

The route was convoluted and dangerous. The first stop was Port au Spain, Trinidad, a ten hour flight from Miami. FDR and his closest advisors spent the night at the Macqueripe Hotel and took off at 5:30 am the next morning.

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One of two Boeing Clippers (“Dixie Clipper”) which carried the Presidential Party from Miami, FL, to North Africa (Casablanca Conference)

Nine hours later they landed on the Para River near Belem, Brazil. After a brief stop and refueling, they began the most dangerous leg of the journey – 2100 miles over the Atlantic Ocean. Any mechanical failure over the open ocean would be a deadly disaster. Strong head winds and turbulence forced the pilots to fly low, between 1,000 and 3,000 feet. After a grueling 19 hours they finally saw the African coast, and at 4:45 pm on January 13 they arrived at the mouth of the Gambia River in British controlled Gambia.

Credit: State Library of Victoria

Credit: State Library of Victoria

The USS Memphis was anchored and waiting for the Commander in Chief.  The President insisted on seeing the local area, and boarded a small motorboat. The nearby community of Bathurst was a “squalid and disease ridden town” according to one of the officers who accompanied FDR. The terrible living conditions of the native population reinforced Roosevelt’s strong belief that the age of Imperialism had to come to an end.

The Presidential party dined aboard the USS Memphis and the next morning boarded two C-54 transport planes for the final 1,600 miles to Morocco. They flew over Dakar, the Senegal River, across the Sahara Desert and over the legendary Atlas Mountains. They finally landed in Casablanca at 5:00pm on January 14th.

Casablanca was well within the range of German bombers, so secrecy was a top priority. Lt. Colonel Elliot Roosevelt met his father when he arrived, but even he had not been told why he was going to Morocco. The presidential party made its way to the Anfa Hotel where the conference would take place. The guest book reveals the names of some of the attendees: Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, Gen George Patton, FDR’s closest advisor Harry Hopkins and many others.

58-239That evening the British and American leaders had dinner, and FDR and Churchill stayed up until 3am discussing strategy, drinking and smoking like long lost friends. The villa FDR was staying in was called “Dar Es Saada” which Churchill translated as “Abode of Divine Favor.”

guestbook-3The meetings began the next morning, January 15th. While there were many areas of discussion, the main topic was the “second front.” Although the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin was not there, he had made it very clear that he was furious the Allies had not opened a second front in Europe. The Red Army was suffering tremendous casualties as they fought to defend Moscow, Stalingrad and Leningrad from a ferocious German assault. Nearly four million German troops and thousands of tanks were deep within Russia and Stalin was insistent that the British and Americans launch a cross channel invasion to draw off some of the Nazi war machine that was devouring Russia. While the tide was starting to turn in Stalin’s favor, an estimated 10 million Russians had already died.

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FDR and Churchill at a conference with the Joint Chiefs of Staff during the Casablanca Conference.

The British and American military leaders had been at odds for more than a year about when they should invade France. The British had convinced the American’s to attack North Africa first, and they now wanted to invade Sicily and take control of the Mediterranean. Some of the Americans wanted to focus on the war in the Pacific against the Japanese. The German submarine attacks had made it very difficult to supply Britain and the Soviet Union with all of the supplies they needed. Now that the war in Africa was moving toward a conclusion, it was essential that the Allies develop a clear plan for victory.

The meetings went on for ten days, and tempers flared on more than one occasion. Adding to the complexity was the role of the French, who had initially fought the Americans when they came ashore in Morocco. There were two French factions, one led by General Henri Giraud, and one by General Charles De Gaulle. One British general noted that they hated each other more than they hated the Germans.

This was the first time since the Civil War that an American president had been in a battle zone and FDR was determined to review the troops, despite the objections of the Secret Service. The battle of Morocco had ended just two months earlier, and hundreds of thousands of American troops were now coming ashore and heading into battle in Tunisia. But none of them knew their Commander in Chief was in their midst.

58-676378-965On January 18th President Roosevelt reviewed the 30th Infantry Battalion near Casablanca, and on the 21st he traveled up the coast to Rabat, where some of the fiercest fighting had taken place, to review the 3rd Infantry Division. The GIs were “shocked and thrilled” to see FDR as he saluted from his jeep. The president visited the new military cemetery at Mehdia, and had lunch with Harry Hopkins, Gen. Patton and his troops. FDR ate standard army rations from a mess kit: boiled ham, sweet potatoes, string beans and coffee.

66-10413The Army band played his favorite songs, including “Chattanooga Choo Choo” and “Deep in the Heart of Texas.” Roosevelt was deeply moved by the experience and when he returned home he wrote dozens of personal letters to the families of servicemen he met and to the families of the soldiers buried at Mehdia.

On January 22, the Sultan of Morocco and the 13 year old crown prince hosted FDR and Churchill for dinner. It was an opulent affair, with the traditional exchange of state gifts. In this case a jewel encrusted tiara and a magnificent ceremonial sword.

Finally on January 24th the conference came to an end. About 40 British and American war correspondents were flown in from Algiers and Tunisia. They were not told why they were going, and were stunned to find out that the President, the Prime Minister and their combined Chiefs of Staffs and military leaders had been in North Africa for more than a week. FDR demonstrated once again his genius in using the media to tell the story he wanted told.

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FDR – with Winston Churchill at Casablanca, seated on lawn

It was a beautiful day, the Moroccan skies a deep clear blue as the North African sun blazed brightly overhead. Security was extremely tight, the area was surrounded with barbed wire and armed guards every 20 feet. Fighter planes circled overhead. Roosevelt and Churchill invited the reporters to sit on the grass and then they read their statements and took questions.

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One of the first things that FDR said was that Premier Stalin had been invited to join them, but he could not come because of the battles raging in Russia. It was during this press conference that FDR first publicly brought up “unconditional surrender” of Germany, Italy and Japan. That phrase generated enormous discussion and controversy. There are still those who say that it startled Prime Minister Churchill (including Wikipedia) because he had not expected FDR to use those words. That is simply not true. The idea of “unconditional surrender” had first come up with American military leaders in May, 1942, and Churchill himself had used the phrase in a telex to his war cabinet and had approved its use in the press release which was drafted on January 18th.

What might have startled Churchill, and led to later confusion, is FDR’s inclusion of Italy because Churchill had argued that they should leave the door open for a separate peace treaty with Italy. The manner in which FDR said it might also have surprised Churchill as it was a departure from the approved statement.  After saying rather formally that “peace can come to the world only by the total elimination of German and Japanese war power” FDR lapsed into his folksy storytelling mode. “Some of you Britishers know the old story — we had a General called U.S. Grant. His name was Ulysses Simpson Grant but in my, and the Prime Minister’s, early days he was called “Unconditional Surrender” Grant. The elimination of German, Japanese and Italian war power means the unconditional surrender by Germany, Italy and Japan.”

Prime Minister Churchill reiterated the President’s statements, describing the ten day meetings as “the most important and successful war conference which I have ever attended or witnessed.” He called himself FDR’s “active and ardent Lieutenant” and described the great success the Allies were having in North Africa. He called Field Marshall Rommel “the fugitive of Egypt and Libya” and described the British 8th Army’s pursuit of him this way: “I can give you this assurance – everywhere that Mary went the lamb is sure to go.” The press roared with laughter.

Although they played only a minor role in the military discussions, the political crisis of the two opposing French leaders was also eased by FDR’s media savvy. After FDR, Churchill, De Gaulle and Giraud posed for photographs, FDR suggested the two leaders shake hands for the camera. Although De Gaulle at first refused, he did eventually agree. A photograph of the two French leaders shaking hands was a coup for FDR, though it did little to resolve the animosity between them.

48-22-362821The conference ended with high hopes and great expectations. But Churchill had one last request for the president – accompany him to Marrakesh, “simply the nicest place on Earth to spend an afternoon.” At 1:30 pm on the 24th a well-armed caravan left Casablanca and headed south for the walled city of Marrakesh. FDR and Churchill drove past camel caravans, olive and orange groves, and arrived at a Villa being used by the American Vice Consul. The villa’s surroundings were described as a “garden from a Maxfield Parish painting.”

Churchill told the villa’s servants to form a chair with their arms and carry President Roosevelt up to the top of the villa’s small tower. They two great leaders watched the peaks of the Atlas Mountains turn pink as the sun set over the Moroccan desert.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt with Winston Churchill at Marrakech, Morocco following the Casablanca Conference.

The next day FDR started his return voyage home, and Winston Churchill came to the airfield to say his good-byes dressed in bedroom slippers and a silk robe. The President’s entourage stopped at Gambia, Liberia, and Brazil finally arriving in Trinidad on January 29th. The news had finally broken about the Casablanca Conference, and huge crowds turned out to see the President when he arrived in Port au Spain. President Roosevelt flew the final leg to Miami on his 61st birthday, and enjoyed birthday cake with his closest advisors.

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FDR celebrating his 61st birthday aboard the Clipper between Trinidad and Miami on returning from Casablanca Conference. FDR is cutting cake with Admiral Leahy seated next to him, Harry Hopkins across the table.

He boarded his private train in Miami and was back at the White House by 6:30 pm on January 31st.

The Casablanca Conference was a smashing success, and it inspired the world with its boldness and audacity. There were still many months of bitter fighting ahead, but in every way, the tide was turning in the Allies favor. Even FDR’s most stalwart opponents conceded his success. The Republican newspaper editor William Allen White wrote, “…we are compelled to admit that Franklin Roosevelt is the most unaccountable and on the whole the most enemy-baffling President that this United States has ever seen… a certain vast impudent courage… Well damn your smiling old picture, here it is… We, who hate your gaudy guts, salute you.”

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Day of Infamy

By Paul M. Sparrow, FDR Library Director

It was the worst day of his presidency, the worst day of his life – and the worst military defeat in American history. President Franklin Roosevelt’s beloved Navy lay in smoking ruins in Pearl Harbor, as the Japanese Empire launched well-coordinated attacks across a 4,000 mile front. The Nazis controlled Europe and North Africa. Britain and Russia were on the verge of collapse.

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But as the smoke cleared from the mangled wreckage, it revealed a truly great leader. Franklin Roosevelt took the weight of the free world on his paralyzed legs and carried America into the future – away from our isolationist past and into the age of the global superpower.

At the worst moment of his life he rose to the occasion, providing desperately needed vision and confidence to a staggered nation. Within hours of the attack he dictated the first draft of one of the greatest speeches of the 20th century, arguably one of the greatest speeches in American history. He was honest, direct, and absolutely clear:

“With confidence in our armed forces – with the unbounding determination of our people – we will gain the inevitable triumph – so help us God.”

The speech was short, just under seven minutes long. It expressed his outrage, his sense of betrayal, and his complete confidence that in the end the United States would avenge this treachery.

In some ways he had been preparing for this moment for years – since Germany invaded Poland in September 1939. Faced with an American citizenry, and a congress, strongly opposed to getting involved with the European war – President Roosevelt knew he had to wait for public opinion to turn in his favor before he could act. He was brilliant in his careful calibration of action, first providing moral support for England and the Allies, then providing military equipment, trading British Naval bases for old destroyers, and shipping tanks and planes under the Lend Lease program. The American public did not fully understand the threat against our democracy.  Through incentives and a little arm twisting he had transformed America’s industrial might into the arsenal of democracy.

73-113-92That terrible day began innocently enough. Franklin Roosevelt was in the Oval Study on the second floor of the White House with his closest advisor Harry Hopkins, who was there because he lived in the White House. All of the other staff were off and Mrs. Roosevelt was hosting a luncheon. FDR was working on his stamp collection at 1:47 pm when the phone rang. It was Frank Knox, Secretary of the Navy calling to say the Japanese were bombing Pearl Harbor.  FDR exclaimed “NO!” in a loud voice and a startled Hopkins jumped to his feet.

They immediately began calling the inner circle; Secretary of War Henry Stimson; FDR’s private secretaries Marvin McIntyre and Grace Tully; press secretary Steve Early; and the top military advisors. The first meeting began a little after 3 pm, with just FDR’s closest confidants. As the meeting progressed more and more reports came in, reports that began to paint a picture of the devastating destruction that had rained down on the Pacific Fleet.   Despite the sense of shock and loss, FDR was focused and deliberate.  Mrs. Roosevelt described him as having a “deadly calm.”

hopkins_harry_1936Harry Hopkins described the scene in his diary, and wrote about one issue that would come back again and again. The president was going to speak to congress, and the world, the next day and he wanted to give a short and powerful statement. The Secretary of State, Cordell Hull, argued for a longer, detailed presentation of Japan’s many transgressions. Hopkins noted:

There was some discussion about the President’s message to Congress. The President expressed himself very strongly that he was going to submit a precise message. Hull urged very strongly that the President review the whole history of the Japanese relations in a strong document that might take a half an hour to read. The President objected.”

FDR’s great leadership is perhaps best illustrated by his approach to this speech. For it was much more than merely an address to congress. It needed to be a statement to the world – a battle cry for freedom – an unquestioned call to arms.

The meeting broke up around 4:15 pm.  After everyone had left, FDR called Grace Tully into the Oval Study. He was smoking a cigarette as she came in.

Ms. Tully described the scene in her memoir:

tully_graceHe took a deep drag and addressed me calmly. ‘Sit down, Grace. I’m going before Congress tomorrow. I’d like to dictate my message. It will be short.’ I sat down without a word; it was no time for words other than those to become part of the war effort. Once more he inhaled deeply, then he began in the same calm tone in which he dictated his mail. Only his diction was a little different as he spoke each word incisively and slowly, carefully specifying each punctuation mark and paragraph. The entire message ran under 500 words, a cold-blooded indictment of Japanese treachery and aggression, delivered to me without hesitation, interruption or second thoughts.”

Grace typed up the speech and gave it to FDR. He made a series of edits, including perhaps the most famous edit of any Presidential speech  – changing the words “world history” to “infamy.”

day-of-infamy-p1The president kept this copy of the speech with him the rest of the day, making small changes here and there. The final version is just 25 sentences, about twice as long as Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address. It is an extraordinary document in its clarity of purpose and muscular structure. There are no wasted words. It is sharp and pointed – like a bayonet aimed at the heart of an enemy combatant.

day-of-infamy-fdrs-studyAt 8:40 pm, FDR sat behind his desk in the Oval Study, his cabinet arrayed around him in a semi-circle. He told them this was the most important cabinet meeting since the bombardment of Fort Sumter and the start of the Civil War. Like Lincoln, FDR had put together a remarkable team of rivals. The Secretary of War was a Republican. And Navy Secretary Knox had run against him as the Republican Vice President in 1936. But they all shared a deep commitment to defending democracy.

FDR was almost overcome with emotion as he described the destruction of his cherished battleships and the massive loss of life. Then he read them his proposed speech. Hull and Stimson immediately objected and a bitter debate erupted. They put forth a 17 page speech that described, blow by blow, all of the Japanese transgressions of the past decade.  The President flatly rejected their arguments, but as they became increasingly insistent, FDR finally agreed to review their speech to end the discussion. Based on the complete lack of editing notes it is unlikely FDR ever read it.

The President then faced his most difficult task. Imagine the scene. Its 9:30 pm. Its been an exhausting day. President Roosevelt in the Oval Study, surrounded by a bi-partisan group of congressional leaders. They had heard about the attack but knew very little of the details. Some were bitter opponents of FDR. As he delivered the latest details of the attack, they gasped. Some questioned why the fleet had been caught unprepared. There was no good answer for that. But even at that moment, he showed no fear, no hesitation about what needed to be done. He read them the draft of his speech and asked for their support.

Vice President Henry Wallace made one suggestion that FDR included in his speech, and it was a line that generated the greatest round of applause the next day. It also summed up perfectly how the President truly felt.

“No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people will in their righteous might win through to absolute victory.”

FDR awoke the next morning to a phone call relaying more bad news – attacks on the Philippines, Wake Island and Midway. He met with Harry Hopkins and they made a few minor changes to the speech. The heavy painful steel braces were attached to his legs. A little after noon he was brought out to the car and driven to the Capitol. He had to make the long walk out into the chamber holding on to his son’s arm and balancing himself with his cane. Once in position, he gripped the lectern and took a deep breath.

His presentation is truly remarkable, delivered with a solemn but determined tone, and with absolute conviction in his voice. It was a clarion call, a profound statement of national values and a fierce show of determination that justice would be served. When he gets to the part where he lists the many places the Japanese have attacked it takes on the rhythm of a sermon. And when he gets to the end, he makes clear his main point:

“With confidence in our armed forces – with the unbounding determination of our people – we will gain the inevitable triumph – so help us God.”

This story is told in greater detail and with many multimedia components in the current exhibit “ Day of Infamy: 24 Hours That Changed the World” open until Dec. 31st. There is also a new education portal sponsored by AT&T available to teachers and students here. https://fdrlibrary.org/curriculum-hubs .

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